A design study of a scintillation fiber (SF) calorimeter for a cosmic ray observation is made. An evaluation of various fibers and design configuration was made. The proposed design has a dimension of 1 m (W) x 1 m (L) x 16 cm (H) contains 1000 fibers at each of 40 x- or 40 y-layers interleaved with 1mm thick leadplates. Two or four CCD Particle Track Imaging Systems are connected to a bundle of SF edges at x- and y-ends. The overall weight of a calorimeter is 1,200 kg including read-out systems and supporting boards. The designed calorimeter can measure cosmic ray nuclei and gamma-rays with position, angles and energy information suitable for detailed spectrum analysis. The system is particularly beneficial at very high energies where the flux is extremely low and it requires a very long exposure over many years in space. Emulsion chambers have an advantage for cosmic ray measurements if the exposure is limited to several months in space. In fact, the most important energy region for the current cosmic ray studies is at around 1,000 TeV where a drastic change of elemental composition is indicated by various indirect observations. A detector whose size is in the order of 1 m(sup 2) requires several years of exposure in space accumulate sufficient statistics near 1,000 TeV. Emulsions will be strongly contaminated by background radiation for such a long duration flight, while SF calorimeter is totally immune from this concern. This is particularly important for long-duration experiments. The SF calorimeter also allows time-tagging of individual events, extending the experimental capability in various ways.